In April 1944, Barbie ordered the to of a group of 44 Jewish children from an orphanage at . After his operations in Lyon, he rejoined the SiPo-SD of Lyon in , where he led an anti-partisan attack in in September 1944.
Historians estimate that Barbie was directly responsible for the deaths of up to 14,000 people. He arrested , one of the highest-ranking members of the and his most prominent enemy figure. In 1943, he was awarded the "Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Swords" for his campaign against the French Resistance, and the capture of Moulin by .
In 1947, Barbie was recruited as an agent for the 66th Detachment of the (CIC). The U.S. used Barbie and other Nazi Party members to further efforts in Europe. Specifically, they were interested in British interrogation techniques, which Barbie had experienced firsthand, and the identities of officers that the British were using for their own ends. Later, the CIC housed him in a hotel in , and he reported on French intelligence activities in the because they felt the French were infiltrated with Communists.
After the German and of the , Barbie was assigned to . In 1942, he was sent to , France, in the . In November of the same year, at the age of 29, he was assigned to as the head of the local Gestapo. He established his headquarters at the Hôtel Terminus in Lyon, where he personally prisoners: men, women, and children alike,—breaking extremities, using electroshock, and sexually abusing them (including with dogs), among other methods. He became known as the "Butcher of Lyon". In 's Oscar-winning documentary film, , the daughter of a leader based in Lyon recounts her father's torture by Barbie – her father was beaten, , and his head was immersed in a bucket of ; he died shortly after.
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